Pelvic ultrasound assesses the shape, size, and structure of the uterus and endometrium (the mucous membrane inside the uterine cavity). It also shows the location, size, and ovulatory function of the ovaries.
Pelvic ultrasound is the starting point in the diagnosis of menstrual disorders and infertility. It helps diagnose several diseases related to the abnormal menstrual cycle: uterine fibroids, tumors, ovarian cysts, ovarian torsion, and cancerous lesions of the reproductive tract. It is used to confirm pregnancy, normal with a gestational sac in the uterine cavity and an extrauterine one.
There are different ways to perform the pelvic US:
- transvaginally – the probe is inserted into the vagina. This route gives accurate pictures and precisely assesses the condition of the reproductive organ. The examination is completely safe. The transducer (probe) is always covered with a special single-use latex cover.
- abdominally – this route is used in patients with an intact hymen or in women who do not consent to the vaginal examination. Nevertheless, the images are usually of lower quality, and it does not allow for an accurate assessment of the organs located deep in the pelvis.
- transrectally – the probe is inserted into the rectum like in transvaginal ultrasound. This route is rarely used in specific cases.
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